Tag: How To Choose Surrogate Mothers

Ectogenesis artificial womb technology

Ectogenesis artificial womb technology

Ectogenesis, the artificial womb technology, is the revolutionary way to grow an organism in an artificial environment and outside the body of a woman. So, the embryo or fetus grows outside the womb or outside the body of the host. Coined by J.B.S Haldane, Ectogenesis makes use of artificial uterus which has the supply of oxygen and nutrients to nurture the fetus. ‘Ectogenesis: the Artificial Womb Technology and the Future of Human Reproduction’ is the book which raises social, legal and moral issues relating to the possible development of the artificial wombs for the development of the fetus in the near future. Can be accept ectogenesis on moral grounds? This is an important question raised by the researchers in the book. Even if it is acceptable, what can be the possible circumstances? There are many who suspect that ectogenesis may either enhance or rather diminish the reproductive rights of women. The anthology addresses such questions and tends to resolve them all.

Ectogenesis and the reproductive rights

Ectogenesis, as already said, is the technology of the growth of mammalian fetuses in an artificial environment. The ‘Science and the Future’ came as a shocking science fiction for everyone but it proved remarkable at the later stage since it predicted the future in real terms. Aldoux Huxley, the friend of Haldane anticipated similar developments and clearly stated them in the ‘Brave New World’. An Australian researcher also reported biochemical pregnancy in the year 1953 when he successfully extracted a fertilized egg using similar technology. In the year 2014, we saw the birth of a baby from a woman who underwent a uterus transplant. In the year 2016, the concept of Three-Parent-baby became a truth. Ecotogenesis was coined almost a century back by Haldane and replacing pregnancy with this technology became almost possible. But, there were a lot of legal and ethical considerations that had to be made. In the realm of ectogenesis, genuine progress is made as we have seen mouse embryo being introduced into the uterine lining which is lab-created. A further decade of extensive work in the field of ectogenesis will see the human version in 2030s. In fact, the first model showed the ability to supply nutrients and oxygen to the fetus from the outside source. The feed introduced here will act as placenta. Many religious groups are opposed to this technology. An extensive manipulation and monitoring of DNA is predicted in the near future.

Designer babies from artificial wombs

With the manipulation of DNA and advanced researches till 2050, we are soon to have ‘designer babies’. But, it is also said that babies will lack attachment with mothers if they are born of artificial wombs. However, ectogenesis will help in reducing the number of abortions as the embryo would be placed in an artificial uterus and further adopted by someone else. Homosexual parents will not have to choose a surrogate mother for surrogacy.

Motherhood has profound importance in the human society. This is why feminism is opposed to ectogenesis. But then, they have divided opinion. The worst part is that the babies born of artificial uterus would lack the bond with parents.

Difference between gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy

Difference between gestational surrogacy and traditional surrogacy

Couples who dream of having their own biological children can choose surrogacy if they are unable to conceive. Since the ancient Biblical times, surrogacy has been used as a probable way to help couples build families when they are infertile or cannot conceive due to some reasons. If you wish to become a surrogate mother, you need to know the various kinds of surrogacy. Traditional surrogacy is that kind of surrogacy where the egg of the surrogate mom is fertilized with the sperm of the father who wishes to be the biological father of the child. Now the technology has advanced so much that parents can have their own biological children. In Vitro fertilization is the prime procedure which is used for gestational surrogacy. Through the IVF, the surrogate mom can carry a baby having the genes of intended couple. Indeed, the surrogate mom is in no way connected genetically to the child.

Distinction between traditional and gestational surrogacy on the basis of conception

When you talk about traditional surrogacy, the conception occurs with the natural insemination or unprotected intercourse during ovulation. But, gestational surrogacy involves a few more steps like IVF or artificial insemination. In the gestational surrogacy, the mom has no genetic connection with the child. But, still the mom is prescribed progesterone and estrogen to allow the uterus lining to grow and get prepared for IVF. In this, multiple eggs are brought into maturity in order to increase the chance of conception. It is the mother who needs to decide whether she wants to use a single egg during IVF or multiple eggs. The sperm of the intended father is then fertilized with the egg of the intended mother and is incubated for around 15 hours to produce an embryo. The embryo is normally produced after 40 hours of incubation. The doctor then implants embryo into the uterus of the mom. If things are successful, the surrogate mom conceives a baby.

Distinction on the basis of pregnancy

Pregnancy usually takes place after 10 days of conceiving. This is suggested by a skipped menstrual cycle. After the IVF in the gestational surrogacy, the mom has to visit the clinic after two weeks to receive the blood work. This is just to ensure that the embryo is taken successfully. There may be a series of blood tests to know whether the surrogate mom is pregnant or not. However, the physical symptoms of both traditional and gestational surrogacy are the same when the mom conceives. Some of them include mild spotting, swollen breasts and some hunger pang. To make sure that the fetus develops in a healthy manner, she has to continue taking the progesterone and estrogen. Traditional surrogacy is much older than gestational surrogacy.

Gestational carrier and surrogacy

Gestational carrier is not related to the child, but traditional is related genetically to the child. Surrogacy is crucial to get over with the infertility problem of mainly the father, but gestational surrogacy is meant to overcome breeding issues of both partners. A surrogate can get pregnant via a variety of ways, but a gestational carrier becomes pregnant only through IVF.

The distinction between traditional and gestational surrogacy is mainly done on the basis of the relation shared between the child and the surrogate mother. If you want to avoid legal complications, do choose gestational surrogacy, which is again more expensive than traditional surrogacy.

Artificial womb feminism

Artificial womb feminism

An artificial womb or the technology of ectogenesis is all set to change feminism. Indeed, the most politicized part of woman’s body, the womb is separated from her and how feminism reacts to it is the major question. The very idea of human fetus, developing outside the body of a woman is radical. Gestation is the term derived from ‘gestare’, implying a human carrying burden. Womb is a term used to describe ‘mother’. So, how can gestation occur when the mother is not bearing a child in her body and how may the womb exist outside the mother’s body in the form of artificial wombs. Ectogenesis is sure to pass from the sheets of ‘Brave New World’ into the world of reality within the next 30 years. The technology of ectogenesis has been in development for the past one decade and in the year 2003, scientists started to grow mouse embryo in the artificial wombs but could not grow human embryos owing to the two weeks of restriction in the research. But it is estimated that such restrictions will be overcome and in the 21st century itself we will have the fetus growing in the artificial womb.

Why feminism has opposing views?

According to feminism, creating alternative womb for carrying children will devalue women to a great extent. Patriarchy will rule more in our society and women will be devalued further. The society will rejoice at the very prospect of “end of women’, as it is called. However, we have all mixed opinion coming from different feminists. Some even believe that artificial wombs will ensure equality for women. They will not have to bear the responsibility of bearing children and will be free of this burden. Women will no longer be regarded as the child bearing machine. Then, they even do not have to bear the risks associated with child bearing and delivery. Even if a woman has to offer post natal care to the baby, it will lead to an equal distribution of responsibility. So, ultimately, there will be fewer career-deferring among the fairer sex. Employers will not be reluctant to hire women for the job posts. They will not have to think about the maternity leaves and maternity allowances.

Not all the feminists are the same

Well, different feminists have different opinions regarding an artificial womb. They have to speak both good and bad about the technology of ectogenesis. Bearing kids is unique ability of women and indeed it is the very base of power for the women in our society. An artificial womb will definitely reduce her power in patriarchy she has. So, in a way, patriarchy is taking away the very power or right of women. The separation of gestation will have a shattering consequence for the feminist movement. As per feminism, we live in a society where womanhood and reproduction is linked symbolically.

Undoubtedly, ectogenesis will improve the quality of existence for women. But, the separation of womb from a woman’s body will also offer the class of anti-feminists some terrifying points of leverage at a time which is crucial for the feminist history.

The emergence of Stay at Home Mom Income opportunities and gestational surrogacy

The emergence of Stay at Home Mom Income opportunities and gestational surrogacy

With the development of complicated lifestyles of many individuals, complications in pregnancy are on a steady rise. With increasing complications in pregnancy, gestational surrogacy and stay at home mom opportunities have emerged as one of the primary choices for many women. In other words, they are also seen as a blessing for those who cannot conceive properly. If you are looking forward to being a surrogate mother and want to earn money by staying at home, you can read the following points on this website that would clearly instruct you to be a surrogate mother.

It is usually said that it takes the effort of a village to raise a child, but in the case of surrogate pregnancy, it takes the effort of a village to give birth to children. On the other hand, the mental toll of a surrogate mother is tough to understand. They bear others’ children, and still, they remain loyal to the couple.

The role of modern medicine

A surrogate mother goes through the process of IVF that usually means In Vitro Fertilization to become pregnant. It is referred to as a medical system where the embryos are manufactured in the biological lab. It is created using the sperm cells of the father and the eggs of the mother. As a result, it is infused into the uterus of the surrogate mother.

In this context, it is important to mention that a surrogate mother has no links to the children. She just carries the children for the sake of her clients. Moreover, to become a surrogate mother, she needs to be in a broad range of medicines to become a successful expecting mother. The several injections can be transfused with self-help or with the help of a doctor.

Pregnancy-related to surrogacy

It is worth noting that gestational surrogacy has the higher probability of giving multiple births. Hence, it is common that the chances of giving birth to twins are very high. On the other hand, the cost of IVF is a bit high, and there is no guarantee that you would become pregnant. Even if a considerable number of embryos are transferred into the body of the surrogate mother, still there would be fewer chances of being pregnant.

The process of surrogate pregnancy

It is quite a complicated process, and hence many surrogate mothers usually do not prefer this method. However, this method is cheaper as compared to other IVF techniques. The gestational process is quite time-consuming in nature. Gestation pregnancy comes with a lot of efforts as it comprises of testing, lawyers and interviewing. It is much common for a surrogate mother to have more than one more IVF as there could be complications related to the sperm and embryo of the donor. However, it is important to note that to become a surrogate mother, you would need a lot of time and commitment. You have to bury all your travel and festive plans and have to stay as if you are the birth mother.  

Surrogate mother is ordered to hand over her toddler to the gay father

Surrogate mother is ordered to hand over her toddler to the gay father

In the world, becoming the mother is the best feeling, but one should never trap anyone to get a child. This is against the law, but this is done by an obsessed woman who wanted a baby of her own at any cost. She used a trick on the gay couple to get a baby. Now the court has ordered to the mother to give back the baby to the father as per legal rule.

The girl has explained to the court how she was bringing up the baby. The baby fed breast milk of the woman, they share bed at night, and they spent all the day together.

The hidden truth

The reality is something else which is found by the judge. The judge found that the girl used needless medical help and created issues with the father of the child and his partner so that they stop contacting the child. Her actual intention was to deny the father of the child.

Then the father and his partner took legal help to get back their child, but the mother brought some absurd allegations against the couple. She even used the remarks on their sexuality. She claims many things that she could not prove for the lack of evidence. She also complained that the couple welcomed people at their place and take drugs and they have had group sex and more. But she had no proper evidence of her claims.

She along with her followers also used the social media as the platform for claiming that the couple only had an intention to get a baby from a mother who is good. In this case, the girl misled the gay person and made him believed that she wanted to become a surrogate mother for them.

After getting into the case, the judge has disclosed another truth that the girl used to the sperm of the gay to become a mother and trapped the couple. In this case, the girl represented herself as a sufferer who had been deprived by the couple. She has claimed that the couple was going to make a family without her. But the judge found that this was not true depending on the evidence.

The court has ordered to stay the mother with the gay father and her child in the initial stage. The girl child should be provided a healthy and balanced life. The girl child should get a healthy life from her parents so she should be taken to her father. The judge also declared the fear of misled the girl about her father to control their contacts and that could be harmful to the childhood of the toddler. The mother of the girl child is ordered to hand over the girl child immediately to the father and his partner.

Challenges of Artificial Child Birth

Challenges of Artificial Child Birth

Back in the year 1924, JBS Haldane, a famous biologist introduced the world to ectogenesis. Ectogenesis is human pregnancy which is provided with the help of an artificially made womb. He went on to predict that by the year 2074 this type of pregnancy would become so common that just a few, less than 30%, births, would happen out of an actual woman. However for that to happen major advancements are required in the incubators.

Early Days of Ectogenesis

This process owes its origin in 1880 at a time when Etienne Stéphane Tarnier, an obstetrician from France made something similar to crude incubator. Although it helped to improve the mortality rate, yet there was no upgrade to its design and technology till about 1950s

During the period of early and mid-1960s many experiments were carried out to transform these incubators to act more like a womb. Attempts were made to create placentas artificially to support life till a fetus properly develops when it can function independently. Experiments for this purpose were carried out on rabbit, lamb and goat fetuses. However, most of these experiments proved futile because of problems pertaining to the difficulties related to maintaining proper circulation to fetus’ heart.

Present Day Incubators

The efficient and sleek looking incubators that we see today are not very different to those that existed decades ago. They function almost identically and they are still not technologically advanced enough to provide vital nutrients which are key for the growth of the baby. It is because of this that babies usually have to be given nutrients via catheters directly inserted into their veins. It is common for the babies to try and pull out the tubes inserted in his or her veins as these can cause discomfort and mild pain. In order to prevent that the babies from doing that they are at times given sedatives. In addition to this, there is a big risk of infection from the tubes which are inserted into their veins, to the future health of the baby. So it is safe to assume that the modern day incubators have a lot of room for improvement.

Complications with Artificial child births

Presently the earliest a baby that has survived birth is 22 weeks of pregnancy.  However it has been noticed that in about 4/5th of these cases babies born within 23 weeks fail to survive and those that manage to survive suffer from major health problems, due to them having immature organs.  Lung diseases which are chronic in nature are very common in such cases. It is very difficult for premature babies to survive with under developed lungs as the failure of respiratory system is very common challenge.

Another very challenging aspect is the brain. The first 37-40 weeks are very important for gestation. It is only after that period can the brain support life outside of the womb. The brain is more at risk of injury when a baby is born prematurely causing blindness, deafness and cerebral palsy. This makes artificial birth a complex affair even in this day and age.

Artificial wombs to keep the premature babies alive

Artificial wombs to keep the premature babies alive

In America, scientists have invented an artificial womb where babies can be kept securely after getting an extremely premature birth at 23 weeks gestational age.

The artificial womb was created by the scientists to examine the premature lambs. The scientists got an amazing response from the fetuses who were kept in the artificial device after premature birth. The device has a similar atmosphere like mother’s womb where babies can be matured safely for one month. This was explained by the fetus surgeon Alan Flake who has also led the research. This research was printed in Nature Communications journal.

Know about the device

In the device, fetuses grow in a very normal way. The growth of the brain, lung, and heart in this biobag was absolutely normal in the lamb fetuses. Now the team of the scientists is going to try it on the premature human fetus within coming two to three years.

The researchers have imitated the atmosphere of the pregnant womb in the device to give the same atmosphere to the premature babies after getting an extremely premature birth.

Jay Greenspan is one of the most successful pediatricians has declared that the artificial womb device is a miracle of the technologies. He has also told that it was their achievement for which they were working for past decades.  

According to this, the lamb fetus had to be kept in the warm and dark room where the mother’s heart beat was played and monitored the development of the infant by the scientists. The experiment was done on the lamb fetus because lamb fetus development is almost similar to the human babies. Scientists also say that they can follow the development of the fetus in a better way through this process.

Different opinions of the researchers

Though this device has become successful on the lamb fetuses, but still it is making confusion among the scientists who are thinking whether the device will be suitable to the human fetus or not.

This device is mainly designed for the babies who born unexpectedly at 23 weeks or 24 weeks. These babies face many health issues and permanent problems if they are born so early.

According to Alan Flake, the ethical decision should be taken by balancing the chances of life and death.

Babies, who born so early use to have very low chance to survive as among them fifty percent babies survive. The survived babies often face man permanent health issues like deafness, cerebral palsy, paralysis, mental retardation and more.

According to the researchers, 30,000 babies take birth before reaching the 26 weeks of gestational age in the United States every year.

Though scientists have achieved a good response from the lamb fetus using this device another group of scientists is not finding the uses of the device ethical on the human fetuses. The scientists are showing their different aspects, and according to them, this is a sensitive issue related to a baby. The device is eliminating the light difference between the fetus and the babies as well.